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FOF
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I took one of these and welded it to a 1/4" rod. Chuck in cordless drill and have at it. Push the big stuff out first with a piece of pipe and a wadded up rag. Use lots of WD40 with the wire brush. Repeat until clean.
 

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FOF
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The above is assuming you pull the carrier, be sure to replace the seals and get them in straight.
If you dont want to pull the carrier, use a shop-vac with a extension pipe.
 

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I had a rear FF 14 bolt build that previously had a terrible gear setup which annihilated the gears and bearings, and all the metal sludge ended up all throughout the axle tubes. I started with the above wire wheel welded to a 1/4" rod in the drill which did OKish but just smeared the crap. Rags weren't doing much either so I got pissed off and grabbed the pressure washer. Had the whole housing perfectly clean within about 10 minutes compared to previously spending hours fawking around with other methods. Just make sure to dry everything to prevent rust and run rags down the tubes afterwards anyways to dry things.

*edit* for rust I bet the wire wheel would be best, for metal and gear oil acting like a thick grease, pressure wash it!
 

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I pulled my axles while trying to identify a slight vibration that had developed last weekend when I was playing. What I found was that my hub locks had frozen, my wheel hub/bearing assembly had also frozen, my seals on the factory hub locker, the outer yellow o-ring on the hub, the inner hub seal, the dust cover, and the inner axle shaft seal (to the diff) had all failed - on both sides - and my axle tubes were half full of mud. I also discovered that my vacuum ports on the knuckles were both thoroughly clogged, including the screw-in metal vacuum nipples. So I pulled EVERYTHING.

Thankfully, my diff oil had very little contamination, and only a tiny amount of grime/crud had made it into my diff. Word from the wise: DO NOT IGNORE CHANGES IN THE FEEL OF YOUR VEHICLE!

In any case, I have done several things to get it cleaned out:

First, I tried the washer on the rod method. This got all of the large particulate, but did very little for the build-up in the tubes.

Next, I bought a 3-inch round wire brush, an adjustable drill chuck extension (by Dewalt), and a locking steel 35-inch screwdriver bit extension (in the plumbing department at Home Depo). I then discovered that my Dana 50 axle tubes were roughly 2.6 inches in diameter, so I had to take the wire brush to the grinder and trim it down some. (I first tried cutting it with various metal cutting tools, including bolt cutters, but it was ununiform and only minimally effective.) I then hooked that up to an A/C high-RPM drill and ran it all up and down the inside of my axle tubes, but was rather disappointed to discover that since there was so much gunk built up, this whole concept was quite ineffective as well.

Next, I am going to go with the power washer idea, this afternoon. I am hopeful that this will be as effective as others have suggested it was.

Now, you guys may be asking yourselves why getting this cleaned out is so important to me.

The answer is that I have decided that I don't want to have to do this every 2-3 times I take her out to play in the mud. It is well-known that the Ford F250's Dana 50 assembly has this cheap-o little "dust cover" (National part #790413) that is completely ineffective at keeping anything at all out of your axle tubes. Which, in turn, means that the inner axle seal (National part #790492) is then left to do the ENTIRE job of keeping all of the mud, water, and grime from breaching the pumpkin and destroying your gears.

I intend to find a way to change that. I have been doing some research on other attempts at this, but don't find many that are very well documented, and it doesn't seem like ANY of those have had much measure of success. But one thing is clear - I'm not going to be able to seal ANYTHING if the contact surface in my axle tubes is dirty. So I'm going all out on this to make sure I have the best opportunity for success.

As far as my ideas for what to put in my tubes where the dust covers would otherwise go, I am looking into aftermarket inner axle seals from Sealsit.com. I intend to put one right next to my inner axle seal, and another one where the dust cover goes. I have also heard stories about seals placed there getting crushed when the wheel is turned, since the axle shaft shifts in the tube when doing so. So I am going to be looking for seals that won't crush, or with keeping the axle from shifting in the tube during turns, as well as whether or not it interferes with my turn radius, my steering functionality, ride quality, and unnecessary wear on my axles and tubes. I have also considered installing some sort of self-cleaning spray jet inside the tubes to force particulate back out of the tubes. If my inner seals are hella good, there shouldn't be any reason that doing so would compromise them.

But this will be a lot of trial and error, and I'd love to hear any experiences and feedback on any of that.

And if it turns out to just not be possible at all, I may just swap both of my axles out with deuce axles and be done with it.

My build: 1999 Ford F250 Super Duty, 6.8L V10 gas (I know, hold the jokes about it!), 10-inch Procomp lift, 17-inch rims, 40-inch Toyo Open Country MT's, running 5.13's in the diffs.
 

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I took one of these and welded it to a 1/4" rod. Chuck in cordless drill and have at it. Push the big stuff out first with a piece of pipe and a wadded up rag. Use lots of WD40 with the wire brush. Repeat until clean.
i did the same thing except i used 9/16" solid stock(i also use it to align tabs from pass to driver side when building spring hangers/link mounts etc)
 
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