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Standard Pipe- is ordinarily used for low-pressure conveyance of air, gas, water, oil, or other fluids and for mechanical applications.
It is used primarily in
machinery, buildings, sprinkler systems, irrigation systems and water wells rather than in pipelines or utility distribution systems. It may carry fluids at elevated temperatures and pressures which are not subject to external heat applications. It is usually produced in standard diameters and wall thickness to ASTM (American Society for Testing and Materials) specifications.
Ammonia or Ice Machine Pipe Nipple Pipe
Pipe for Plating or Enameling Bomb Casing
Pipe for Rigid Conduit Pressure Piping
Distributor’s Pipe Pump Pipe
Driven Well Pipe Drive Pipe
Standard Pipe Coupling Stock Dry Kiln Pipe
Turbine Pump Pipe Water Well Casing
Water & Gas Service Pipe Furniture Pipe
Dual Stenciled Pipe Sold as Standard Pipe English Gas and Steam Pipe
Water Well Reamed and Drifted Pipe
Conduit Tubing- EMT Water Main Pipe
Pipe for Structural Uses
Oil Country Tubular Goods ( OCTG ) – are pipe used in wells in oil and gas industries consisting of casing, tubing and drill pipe.
A. Casting- is the structural retainer for the walls of oil and gas wells and covers sizes 4.5 to 20 inches O.D. inclusive.
B. Tubing- is used within the casing to convey the oil or gas to the surface (ground level) and ordinarily includes sizes 1.050 to 4.5 inches O.D. inclusive.
C. Drill Pipe- is the pipe used to drill the well by transmitting power to a rotary drilling tool from the surface to below ground level. Normally covers sizes 2 3/8 to 6 5/8 inches O.D. inclusive.
Oil Country Tubular Goods are produced to API (American Petroleum Institute)
Specifications. There are also OCTG Specifications in ISO 9000.
OCTG Coupling Stock Drill Pipe
Line Pipe- is used for transportation of oil, gas, or water generally in a pipeline of utility distribution system. It is produced to API (American Petroleum Institute)
and AWWA (American Water works Association) Specifications.
Line Pipe Coupling Stock API Line Pipe
Dual and Triple Stenciled Pipe AWWA - Mill Type Pipe
Mechanical Tubing- is welded or seamless tubing produced in a large number of shapes of varied chemical composition in sizes 3/16 inch to 10 ¾ inches O.D. inclusive of carbon or alloy material. It is not normally produced to meet specification other than that required to meet the end use. It is produced to meet O.D. and decimal or metric wall thickness.
Aircraft Tubing Furniture Tubing
Airframe Tubing Mechanical Tubing
Tubes for Bearing Precision Pump Tubes
Structural Pipe and Tubing ( having
normal diameters and wall thickness)
Conduit Tubing- EMT
Pressure Tubing- is used to convey fluids at elevated temperatures or pressures, or both, and is suitable to be subjected to heat applications. It is produced to exact O.D. and decimal or metric wall thickness in sizes ½ inch to 6 inches O.D. inclusive, usually to standard
specifications such as ASTM.
Air Heater Tubes Boiler tubes
Oil-Still Tubes Header Tubes
Pressure Tubing and Pipe Coupling Stock Heat Exchanger and Condenser Tubes
Carbon Steel- All ferrous materials other than alloy and stainless which are usefully
malleable and which contains by weight 2 percent or less carbon. (In
effect, all steels other than complying with the definition of alloy or
Note: In all carbon steels small quantities of certain residual elements, such as
copper, nickel, molybdenum, chromium, etc., are all unavoidably retained from raw
Alloy Steel- Steels not complying with the definition of stainless steel and containing by
weight one or more of the following elements in the proportion shown:
0.3 percent or more of Aluminum
0.0008 percent or more of Boron
0.3 percent or more of Chromium
0.3 percent or more of Cobalt
0.4 percent or more of Copper
0.4 percent or more of Lead
1.65 percent or more of Manganese
0.08 percent or more of Molybdenum
0.3 percent or more of Nickel
0.06 percent or more of Niobium
0.6 percent or more of Silicon
Stainless Steel- Alloy Steels containing by weight 1.2 percent or less carbon and
10.5 percent or more of chromium, with or without other elements
and a minimum of 50 percent iron.
Glossary of Terms
AGA- American Gas Associations.
AISI- American Iron and Steel Institute.
API- American Petroleum Institute.
ANSI- American National Standards Institute. Formerly the ASA- American Standard
ASME- American Society for Mechanical Engineers.
ASTM- American Society of Testing Materials.
AWWA- American Water Works Association.
Bales- Term associated with banded lifts of pipe.
Barlow’s Formula- An equation, which shows the relationship of internal pressure to
allowable stress, normal thickness and diameter.
Bevel- The angle formed between the prepared edge of the end of the pipe and a
plane perpendicular to the surface of the member. The standard bevel for line
pipe is 30 degrees to facilitate welding.
Billet- A solid semi-finished round or square product that has been hot-worked by
forging, rolling, or extrusion. For seamless tubular products, the billet is heated
and pierced to form a hollow tube.
Black Bare- Term associated with pipe surface whereby the pipe will not be coated with
mill oil spray and grease spots and cutting oil will not be removed.
Black Dry- Term associated with pipe surface whereby the pipe will not be coated with
mill spray oil and all grease spots and cutting oil will be removed.
Black Oiled- Term associated with pipe surface whereby material ordered in this
manner is protected with a varnish- type oil on the O.D. for temporary
corrosion protection during transit and short-term storage.
Bundles- Term associated with practice of packaging NSP 1-1/2 “ and smaller pipe.
Pieces per bundle vary depending upon size.
Burst Test- A destructive hydraulic test employed to determine actual yield and ultimate
strength of both seamless and welded pipe.
Buttweld Pipe- See Continuous Weld.
Chamfer- A beveled surface to eliminate an otherwise sharp corner.
Chemical Properties- Normally associated with a limited number of chemical elements;
however, depending upon the specification, practically a full
analysis may be required. Minimum or maximum limits are
established in Standards.
Cold Work- Deforming metal physically at a temperature lower than the recrystallization
temperature. Mechanical or hydraulic expansion employed to achieve higher
Conduit- Pipe serving as a duct for electrical wiring.
Coupling- Threaded sleeve used to connect two lengths of pipe.
Continuous Weld- In common usage, a phase for continuous butt-weld. Furnace-
welded pipe produced in continuous lengths from coiled skelp and
subsequently cut into individual lengths, having its longitudinal butt
joint forge welded by the mechanical pressure developed in rolling
the hot-formed skelp through a series of welding rolls.
Cut Lengths- Pipe cut to a specific length as ordered.
Die Stamping- Permanent marking placed on a pipe as required by some
Double Extra Strong- Standard pipe weight designation (XXS). Sometimes described
as XXH (double extra heavy).
DRL- Double Random Length ( 35’ minimum average or as defined in specifications).
DSAW- Double Submerged Arc Weld.
Ductility- The ability of a material to deform plastically without fracturing, being
measured by elongation or reduction of area in a tensile test or by other means.
Eddy- Current Testing- Non-destructive testing method in which eddy-current flow is
induced in the test object. Changes in the flow caused by
variations in the object are reflected into a nearby coil or coils
for subsequent analysis by suitable instrumentation and
ERW- Electric Resistance Weld. See High Frequency Welding.
EW- Electric Weld. See High Frequency Weld.
Elongation- In tensile testing, the increase in the gage length, measured after fracture
of the specimen within the gage length, usually expressed as a percentage
of the original gage length.
Expanded Pipe- Pipe which has been enlarged circumferentially by mechanical or
Extra Strong- Standard pipe weight designation (XS). Sometimes described as XH
Flattening Test- A quality test for pipe in which a specimen is flattened between
parallel plates that are close to a specific height.
Galvanization- Covering or iron or steel surfaces with a protective layer of zinc (weight
defined in specification).
High Frequency Welding- A technique employed in the manufacture of electric
resistance weld pipe. Typical radio frequency power for
welding is supplied at 450,000 cycles per second.
Hot Stamp- Permanent marking placed on pipe as employed by manufacturer or as
established by specification.
Hydrostatic Test- Normal mill test as required by specifications. The pipe ends are
sealed and high-pressure water is introduced to predetermined
pressures as required by specifications.
I.D.- Inside Diameter.
Impact Test- A test performed at a specified temperature (usually lower that ambient)
to determine the behavior of materials when subjected to high rates of
loading, usually bending, tension or torsion. The quantity measured is the
energy absorbed in breaking the specimen by a single blow, as in a
Ink Mark- Continuous printing identification associated with NPS 1-1/2 and smaller
pipe. Detail is normally limited to the trademark and “ Made in USA”.
Kip- A unit of weight equal to 1,000 pounds used to express dead weight.
Lifts- Term associated with separated segments of pipe (banded or unbanded for ease
Magnetic Particle- One of several methods of non-destructive testing. A non-
destructive method of inspection for determining the existence
and extent of possible defects in ferromagnetic materials. Finely
divided magnetic particles, applied to the magnetized part, are
attracted to and outline the pattern of and magnetic leakage fields
created by discontinuities.
Magnetic Properties- The properties of a material that reveal it's elastic and inelastic
behavior where force is applied, thereby indicating its suitability
for mechanical application; for example, tensile strength,
elongation, hardness, and fatigue limit.
NPS- A dimensionless designator for such traditional terms as “ nominal diameter”,
“size”, and “nominal size”. Corresponds to actual outside diameter only in sizes
14 inches and over.
Normalizing- Heating a ferrous material to a suitable temperature above the
transformation range and then cooling in air to a temperature substantially
below the transformation range.
O.D.- Outside Diameter.
Oiled- See Black Oiled.
PE- Plain End.
Pickling- Pipe immersed into acid bath for removal of scale, oil, dirt, etc.
PSI- Pounds per square inch.
PSIG- Pounds per square inch gage.
R & D- Reamed and Drifted. Pipe commonly used in water wells which has a special,
heavy-duty coupling and a guaranteed I.D. clearance.
SC- Square cut plain end pipe.
Skelp- A piece or strip of metal produced to a suitable thickness, width and
configuration, from which welded pipe is made.
SRL- Single Random Length ( 16-22 ft. for standard weight ASTM pipe or as defined in
Stencil- Paint spray identification placed on pipe. Specification size, wall, grade, test
pressure, method of manufacture and normal mill characters and mill
identification are usually included; however, detail varies by specification.
“Country of Origin” is included.
Stretch Reduction- A technique employed in the manufacture of continuous weld pipe
and in certain instances in the manufacture of seamless and
electrical resistance weld pipe. It involves one or several “matter”
sizes which are stretched-reduced or rolled under tension through a
number of stands to achieve a variety of standard pipe diameters
Strip- A sheet of metal in which the length is many times the width.
TBE- Threaded End Bolts.
Tensile Strength- In tensile testing, the ratio of maximum load to original cross-
sectional area. Also called ultimate strength. Usually expressed in
pounds per square inch.
TO- Threads Only.
Tube Round- See Billet.
Ultrasonic- An electronic method of nondestructive testing utilizing sound waves.
Yield Strength- The stress at which a material exhibits a specific deviation from
proportionality of stress and strain. An offset of 0.2% is used for many
metals including steels.